Chronic hyperventilation in musculoskeletal complaints
1.) Hyperventilation (HV)
In the domain of musculoskeletal complaints, chronic hyperventilation (HV) is usually not commonly looked at and is therefore rarely recognized (Warburton and Jack 2008).
According to Gardner (2004), HV: "Hyperventilation is breathing in excess of metabolic requirements and is associated with reduction in arterial PCO2 (PaCO2), respiratory alkalosis, and a wide range of symptoms."